Many researchers predict ample opportunities of application in tactile sensors of integrated optical schemes which one layer will contain light-emitting diodes, and another photoresistors. It will allow not only to reduce the sizes of sensors, but also to simplify technology of their production.
In the sensor offered by Stanford university copper 5 mm wide plates are used. Serves as dielectric the kremniyevoorganichesky connections vulcanized at the room temperature. The matrix containing 44 elements measures pressure to 105 Pas. Frequency of scanning is 100 kHz, entrance resistance is 1-5 megohms.
Also electropro-water elastomer on the basis of silicone rubbers with a filler (graphite, soot, metal fine powder) is applied. Anisotropic conductivity of elaster gives the chance to vary conducting ways and the locations of contacts between electrodes. Shortcomings of such ChE are a susceptibility to electric hindrances, nonlinearity, a considerable hysteresis, low sensitivity at an essential error, small speed, quite low threshold of fatigue.
Use of fibers of carbon and silicone elastomers promotes miniaturization of pyezorezistivny sensors, does technology of their production comparable with manufacturing techniques of integrated schemes. These sensors are calculated on the wide range of measurement and allow considerable overloads.
In the last time the tactile sensors based on change of optical properties of material under the influence of force applied to them gained development. Interest in such optical sensors is explained by their high sensitivity, resistance to electromagnetic fields, a neutrality to influences of environment and opportunity to diversify constructive decisions.
Pyezorezistivny tactile sensors with matrix sensitive elements are developed by various laboratories of the USA (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory MJT) and France (Laboratoire d’Automatique et d’Analyse des System).
Tactile sensors on integrated schemes with use of silicon, quartz and polycrystalline ceramics can provide measurements in the range of 01-40 N (i.e. dynamic range makes 4000:. Special distribution was gained by silicon sensors thanks to the high density of an arrangement of cells in a matrix of ChE, reliability, to a low hysteresis, endurance and small cost.
The capacitor tactile sensors possessing high sensitivity, spatial permission and speed, immunity to hindrances and possibility of installation on fingers of the robot of any design differ in the greatest simplicity of a design. As a rule, capacitor the sensor is formed in the form of a sandwich of the thin plates of copper located by layers perpendicularly each other and divided by dielectric. Under the influence of pressure its electric capacity changes.
The sensor developed in Massachusetts Institute of Technology contains 1190 fibers with a section of 027 mm of quarter, organized in a matrix of 353 Fibres are covered with a polymeric cover 5 mm thick and white silicon rubber of the same thickness, the deforming reflector which is carrying out a role.